INTRODUCTION

         This work is devoted to problems of translation culture specific vocabulary and, in particular, the americanisms of USA English into Kazakh language. Scientists are still worried about the problem of translating americanisms. At the moment, in linguistics there is not installed all the ways of translating this vocabulary into another language.

        If we compare the languages ​​and cultures of different nations, we can distinguish coinciding and unmatched elements. Language is certainly a component of culture. Language is an universal phenomenon: all people talk to each other. Under the language we mean, the use of signs, the exchanging with signs. Language plays a leading role in self-development of a single linguistic community. Therefore, how originally comparison language, how smaller their cultural contact stories, the less they have in common. For non-matching elements include, first of all, the items designated by culture specific vocabulary, and the connotations which are inherent in the words of one language, and missing or different in the words of another language. Under specific culture vocabulary refer foreign words and phrases that represent objects, processes, and other realias of life, which at this stage do not have an equivalents in the target language.

       The topicality of the diploma paper due to the fact that approaches in studying of the culture specific vocabulary concept in scientific literature is extremely varied, and deductions in researches of given subject are often contradictory. In addition, now in the modern and developing world, when our government is obtained to enter to the list of the leader countries in the world, it has a broadened process of cultural exchange between people of different nationalities. In connection with this, in linguistics markedly increased attention to the issue of «transferability», and as a consequence of it, increased scientific interest in the problems of translation culture specific vocabulary related to cultural realias. Solving of these problems are particularly urgent for practical translators.

       The purpose of this paper to show how different lexical semantic transformation helps to fill the semantic gaps, resulting from the use of americanisms, also to identify the most common ways of translating the americanisms into kazakh language.

       To reach the objects of the research, there can be summarized as follows:

1)    To evaluate with the scientific literature on the problems of realias, as words that have a cultural component in the meaning; A

2)    Analyze existing and possible ways of transmission in the translation.

3)    Classification of realias.

4)    The analyse of translation correspondences in translating realities of English into Kazakh language

5)    To expose the most used way of translation, in translating americanisms.

       Textbooks and authors fo research. It should be noted that many our Kazakh, Russian and foreign researchers paid enough attention  to these linguistic units. As S.Vlakhov and S.Florin noted, about realias, as carriers of color, concrete, visible elements of national identity, the researches about them were started in the early 50’s. [1;14] These both researchers also have mentioned  works of scholars such as L.N.Sobolev, V.Chernov, G.Shatkov, A.E.Suprun. S.Vlakhov and S.Florin payed attention to such «untranslatable» elements almost half a century ago, their work “Realias” was published in 1960. Later was printed their book «Untranslatable in translation,» where was presented a complete characterization, classification and methods of translating realias. Realias and Americanisms are the main object of G.D.Tomahin’s study. In the textbooks on the theory of translation by L.S.Barhudarov, V.N.Komissarov, V.N.Krupnov, L.K.Latyshev, T.R.Levitskaya, A.Fiterman, A.Lilova, M.M.Morozov , A.V.Fedorov also provides information on cultural and labeled words. The problems of the relations of language and culture were also addressed by E.M.Vereshchagin and V.G.Kostomarov. N.I.Pamorozskaya and V.S.Vinogradov payed attention for the role of word-realia in an artistic work.

        The main methods of research:

– the method of comparative analysis, allowing to identify the americanisms of English as a unit of the English language, which determine the cultural identity of English and have no correlates in Kazakh language;

– a method of component analysis of dictionary definitions that helps identify the semantic relationship of American realias.

       The theoretical value of this work. There were considered miscellaneous theoretical approaches in studying the given topic. Reviews the main points of view on this issue in the modern linguistic literature. It also provides an overview of existing classifications of realias and methods of translation into other languages.

        The practical value of this work is determined by the possibility application of specific provisions in practice. In the way of practice is particularly important the analysis of specific options for translating. It is brightly seen the relevance of the topic that now there is open a question about the nature, types of realias and ways of their translation. However, the role of word-realia in the process of intercultural communication is enough important. Were explored three calssifications of americanisms, acording to linguistics, thematica and locality. Because of the difficulty in translation of these americanisms, the comparison and translation were done only for the thematical structure of americanisms.

          Thus, the subject of this study is the vocabulary that has no direct analog (equivalent) in language.

          Subject of study modern americanisms, which are comes difficult to understand for kazakh reader.

         The structure of this diploma paper. This work consists of an introduction, Chapter 1 which calls «The theoretical researches on the translation and realia sphere», short conclusion for first chapter, Chapter 2 «Classification of Americanisms and practical methods in their translation» which investigates the practical value of the work, short conclusion for chapter two, general Conclusion which was made due to the review of theoretical and practical parts of the work, Bibliography where was given the list of used literature, articles and sites, and Appendix with short list of americanisms with their translation into kazakh language.

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