Culturological approach to translation

          The word «translate» has many meanings, and it has two terminological value of interest from the standpoint of translation. The first of them defines translation as an intellectual activity, the process of transferring content, expressed in one language by means of another language. The second refers to the result of this process – the text of an oral or written [Vinogradov V.S. 2001, p. 5]. Despite the difference in these concepts, they constitute a dialectical unity.

        By definition of Fyodorov A.V., one of the founders of the domestic translation studies, translation means the ability to «express the true and complete meanings of a single language that has already been expressed earlier by another language,» [Fyodorov A.V. 1953, p. 10].

      Depending on the views of researchers, their purpose and membership of a particular linguistic school of translation was determined as

– Process descriptions using the target language denotations, as described in the original language;

– Transformation of the structure of the speech product, which, while maintaining the same plane of content, changing the plane of expression – one language is replaced by another;

– Conversion of units and structures of the source language units and structures in the target language;

– Disclosure of the equivalent relationship between content and translation.

          Translation as a form of spiritual activity of man goes back to ancient times. He has always played a significant role in the cultural history of individual nations and the world culture in general. The founders of the domestic Translation can be considered to Bitter A.M., Chukovsky K.I., Fyodorov A.V., one of the first linguists who described the principles of literary translation. In the early 40-ies of the 20 century were published two books «High art» by Chukovsky K.I. and “About literary translation» by Alexander Fyodorov, who played a special role in the development of translation studies.

      Linguists have studied the translation process, the construction of its hypothetical models, compared the text and translation in order to establish the lexical, grammatical and textual correspondences, translation techniques described in the transmission of original content, developed criteria for equivalence (adequacy) of translation.

      Literary scholars interested in the translation of terms of its aesthetic equivalent to the original, the role of language translation in the development of spiritual culture, its conformity to the moral needs of the era. Devotees of literary trends devoted their work for exchanging their experience of translation and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of specific transfers.

         Machine direction develops simulation problems of automatic translation, and has practical value.

        In translation theory in detail was developed the issue of transfer of class culture-specific vocabulary and realities – of the «units of the national language, denoted by a unique referents, characteristic of the Linguistic Culture and absent in the comparable linguocultural community» [Schweitzer A.D. 1973, p.251]

        In domestic linguistics has accumulated a wealth of material containing raznoaspektnye describe the realities of a number of languages ​​in comparison with the Russian language. English realities are devoted LS Barhudarova, GD Tomahina, AD Schweitzer. and other researchers. Problems associated with the study of linguistic realities, it is transmitted in the translation, lekikograficheskim linguodidactic description and presentation of highlights in the work of researchers – lingvokulturovedov. Among the major work devoted to studying the reality, belongs to the monograph is well known in our country, the Bulgarian perevodovedov Vlakhova S. and S. Florin «in translating the untranslatable.»

         In modern linguistics, linguistic theory of translation, ethnolinguistics, ethnopsycholinguistics, the theory of intercultural communication differences, discrepancies in the languages ​​and cultures, fixed on different levels, the author describes in different terms. For example, words denoting concepts, objects, phenomena that are typical only for a certain linguistic community, and have no analogues in other languages, are determined by the following terms: «bezekvivalentnaya vocabulary (LS Barkhudarov, EM Vereshchagin, VG Kostomarov), «Realities,» ekzotizmy (C. Vlach, S. Florin), «ksenonimy (Kabakchi VV) logoepistemy (EY Prokhorov) and so on. It is these linguistic units are ethnic and cultural content of the text of the source language and represent the difficulty level etnosemanticheskogo that the recipient has to overcome in cross-cultural communication. The task is to preserve and transfer of ethnic and cultural identity, ie (Using the terminology of translation) to achieve adequate translation.

               I.1. The concept of culture-specific vocabulary (CSV)

      This term is found in many authors (in Tomahin G.D., Vereshchagin E.M.,  Chernov G.V.), which, however, interpret it differently: as a synonym for reality, is somewhat broader – as words that are not «in a culture and another language «[Vereshchagin, 1976, p. 121], some already – as the words,» typical of Soviet reality «[Chernov, 1958, p.51], and, finally, just as non-translatable into another language words.

        The term «culture-specific vocabulary» (hereinafter – CSV) is found in many authors dealing with language and translation (Vereshchagin E.M., Kostomarov V.G., Barkhudarov L.S., Vlach S.A., Florin S.I., Retsker Y.A., Komissarov V.N., Schweizer A.D. and others), which, however, interpret it differently: as a synonym for «reality» that is somewhat broader or somewhat narrower. For example, Schweitzer A.D. classifies CSV «lexical items that serve to indicate the cultural realities that do not have exact matches in a different culture» [Schweitzer: 1976. 108]. Komissarov V.N. culture-specific called «units of the source language, which have no regular correspondences in the target language» [Komissarov: 1990, pp. 147]. Bulgarian linguists Vlakhov S. and Florin S. give its definition, which is significantly narrows the boundaries of CSV: CSV – lexical items that do not have translation equivalents in the target language «[Vlach, Florin: 1980. 51].

        Vlakhov S. and Florin S. also offer a more clearly demarcate for CSV from reality. In their view, the most extensive in its content is the concept of CSV. Realities also fall within the range of CSV as a standalone word. Partly cover the range of realities, but at the same time, partly beyond CSV terms, interjections and onomatopoeia, ekzotizms, abbreviations, references, retreat from the literary norm; touch with the realities of proper names (with a lot of reservations). All the same boundaries CSV occupy a considerable place, words that can properly be called CSV or CSV in the narrow sense – the unit does not have to reason or another lexical correspondences in the target language [Vlakhov, Florin: 1980, p.51-52] .

         AV Fyodorov speaks of «words for the national-specific realities,» [Fyodorov: 2002, pp. 146]. Retsker Y.I. under «culture-specific» lexicon means «above all, the designation of the realities which are characteristic for the country of Linguistics and alien to another language and another reality» [Retsker: 1974, pp. 58]. In the same vein, interprets the realities of AD Schweitzer [Schweitzer: 1976, s.250]. Very concise definition of reality gives by Barkhudarov L.S.: words for objects, concepts and situations that do not exist in the practical experience of people who speak another language «[Barkhudarov: 1975, p.95].

          Komissarov V.N. defines CSV as «symbols specific to a given culture phenomena, which are the product of a cumulative function of language and can be regarded as a repository of background knowledge, ie knowledge available in the consciousness of speaking «[ Komissarov: 1990, p.37].

         Analysis of the business lexicon (especially financial, banking, economic) indicates that some part of it may be classified as culture specific because national-cultural content in these words is the core of their values, and they represent concepts that have no analogues in our economic reality. Such words are especially interested in linguistic-cultural and socio-cultural aspects, as they clearly reflect the national characteristics of the «economic culture» of another country. We illustrate this by the following examples: withholding tax: US-Canadian term for a form of advanced by the payment of taxes; balloon: the Anglo-Saxon term for a loan to be refunded the full amount at one time, but not often, as in the depreciation; blocked units: the action, presented or issued as employee benefits businesses; collateral bonds: debt securities guaranteed by any kind of collateral, most commonly used in the U.S.; odd lot: a term adopted by the New York Stock Exchange, and designating the number of shares of smaller lots, ie, less than 100 (brokers specializing in such transactions, to offer shares on the Stock Exchange gather to form a complete lots); penny stock: an American term for shares, securities, speculative nature, the exchange rate is less than one dollar, and so on.

         A certain part of CSV English language can be classified as «temporarily culture specific terms. Temporarily culture specific terms – words of similar character to the realities. Culture specific vocabulary of this type is due to the uneven distribution of scientific and technological achievements in the social sphere, resulting in innovation, which is present in the practical experience of carriers FL for some time may be virtually unknown to representatives of other linguocultural community.

          It is known that the banking, insurance, tax it, and many other aspects of economic activity developed mainly in the U.S. and other developed Western countries, and, for example, terms such as investment, marketing, merchandising, underwriting, leasing, or even popular for some time now manager had no equivalent in Russian, ie, remained temporarily as culture specific.

                            I.2 Methods for translation BEL

         Cross-language comparison of terminological reveals exactly which linguistic units can be used to provide equivalent transfer temporarily bezekvivalennyh terms, based on the resources of General & specialized vocabulary AEs. Consider ways of translating of culture specific terms.

         Culture specific one-word terms are represented in our sample of isolated cases. In their translation, the following methods:

1. selection of Russian term or common word (more rarely phrase) with a similar meaning;
2. transcription, transliteration;

3. descriptive (explanatory) translation.

Consider the application of these methods in practice.

          With the close of the semantics of the term can be translated term provision – a reserve. English term discontinuity can be transferred to the transmitting its semantics phrase termination of activities. Selection of the term (word) close semantics also allows you to translate the term benchmark. Benchmark – measure, which focuses the company’s management during the formation of any strategy (marketing, financial, production) is the standard that sets a company by comparing the goals and results of its activities with relevant key performance indicators for competitors to form a task of strategic indicators. The very process of identifying key strategic indicators and identify their targets based on indicators of competitors and the selected strategic objectives is termed benchmarking. This concept involves a fundamentally new approach to building a strategy based on a system of key indicators, which creates all the prerequisites for its restraint in the term system of the Russian language.

           Acceptance of transcription (transliteration) for translation can be used is limited: on the one hand, it requires a certain term and end sound system, contributing to further education case forms of the noun, on the other hand, should the organic inclusion of borrowing in the system of concepts related field. We believe that transcription is appropriate when translating the term outsourcing, signifying the transfer of execution of business operations to another organization (with a view to reducing costs and focusing on core activities): it has no Russian equivalent, as denoted by their mechanism, not so long ago has spread abroad, yet hardly used by Russian enterprises. Selection of the close of the Russian word meaning, in this case is impossible; descriptive same translation appears to be too bulky, so that the translation of the term can be recommended for transcription: outsourcing.
When translating bezekvivalentnyh composite terms IYA should pay attention to their structure: what kind of terminoelements means not typical system AEs integral or differential feature, forming a concept that is unparalleled in the categorical system AEs.

          Bezekvivalentnost typical for a small number of single-word terms of financial reporting, and only some of them are involved in the formation of composite terms. If the value bezekvivalentnogo key term conveys Russian term (or a common word) close semantics, then the translation of the term derives corresponding terminoelements encouraged to translate the same way. In most cases, to pass the value of the compound word can be used tracing.
In translating the vast majority of composite bezekvivalentnyh terms of Linguistics is particularly difficult to transfer the value of non-nuclear elements, by which specializes in concept-hyperon, denoted by the key term, and has an analogue in the GOJ (deferred tax; listed company; marketable securities; quoted market value). Terminoelements provide categorical trait expression in the structure of a number of bezekvivalentnyh terms can be modeled on, although the lack of specific concepts in the GOJ prevent identity perception linguistic unit holders of Linguistics and AEs.

          Consider bezekvivalentnye constituent terms of Linguistics, emerged on the basis of one key term, and denoting opposed to each other concepts, not differentiable at the GOJ: basic earnings per share – basic earnings per share (excluding stock split), and diluted earnings per share – reduced as a result of crushing shares / diluted earnings per share;   basic net profit per share – Basic net earnings per share (without fragmentation, dilution) and diluted net profit per share – diluted net income per share (reduced as a result of stock splits), the term dilutive securities – securities, dilutive capital.

           In this case, the difficulty is the transmission component basic, diluted, dilutive: in Russian terminology has not happened allocation category of dilutive securities and appropriate differentiation of concepts to refer to diluted earnings of capital and as a result of dilution. Our proposed translation-tracing, using the definitions of basic, diluted and the dilution (the latter formed on the basis of the term dilution of capital), in our view, can gain a foothold in the Russian language, although at the moment needs a comment.

           When translating antonymic terms – listed company – a company whose shares are traded on the Stock Exchange and publicly traded company – a company whose shares are traded on the OTC market, we use descriptive translation, as a result of tracing would be formed by the lexical-grammatical structure that does not meet norms of the Russian language (freely sell the company or companies exhibited at the OTC market) and do not adequately convey the meaning of terms.
In analyzing the methods of translation bezekvivalentnyh composite terms revealed the following regularities.

1. When translating bezekvivalentnoy terminology may be used expository (descriptive) translation from FL on Fri: holding gain – profit from an increase in the value of assets;listed company – a company whose shares are traded on the Stock Exchange purchase commitments – commitments for payment of orders placed; stock option plan – a program of preferential acquisition personnel of the company. Descriptive translation can convey meaning accurately enough, but the phrase multi-component complicates the syntactic structure of the corresponding sentence of AEs.

2. In translating the vast majority of bezekvivalentnyh terms can be used tracing method: temporary difference – the time difference; identifiable assets – the identifiable assets; unremitted earnings – earnings not paid; unrealized gain – unrealized gains, etc.

3. When tracing can be used grammatical and lexical transformation:
dilutive effect – the effect of dilution (replacement of parts of speech: adjective – noun); translation risk – translation risk (replacement of parts of speech: noun – adjective); valuation allowance – valuation allowance (replacement of parts of speech and lexical replacement), etc.